In Vietnam, women often have less access to and control over resources and have a limited voice in decision-making processes. This leaves women more vulnerable to adverse environmental impacts. This vulnerability, however, is not properly taken into consideration in climate change and environmental policy development processes. At the same time, studies have shown that climate change mitigation and adaptation efforts are more effective and sustainable if they take gender and other forms of social differentiation into account, and if women’s leadership in these areas is strengthened.
With the adoption of the Paris Rulebook at COP 24, new requirements were stipulated under the Information to facilitate Clarity, Transparency and Understanding of NDCs (ICTU) to form “[…] domestic institutional arrangements, public participation and engagement with local communities and indigenous people, in a gender-responsive manner”.
Towards this requirement under ICTU and the current situation in Vietnam, a Climate Change and Gender Working Group was formed that consists of GIZ (the IKI-funded SIPA Project), UN Women, UNDP, and the NGO network of the “Climate Change Working Group” (CCWG). This Climate Change and Gender Working Group saw an opportunity to mainstream and advance gender equality simultaneously into climate actions while considering both in an integrated fashion in the ongoing review and update of Vietnam´s NDC. The group has developed a strategy to sensitize members of the NDC task force about the importance of gender mainstreaming in the NDC with strong evidence and technical support, including the following steps:
- Sharing international experiences: An international expert outlined the global framework of gender integration into NDCs and showcased other countries’ gender responsiveness.
- Indicating the gender gaps: Both international and national experts conducted a gender analysis of Vietnam’s first NDC and identified the entry points where gender integration would be most relevant, and suggested according to text elements.
- Identifying and disseminating success stories: NGO’s success stories of gender mainstreaming in climate change mitigation and adaptation were documented. Particularly, for mitigation, they focused on how gender equality is integrated into rural electrification and renewable energy interventions, while empowering women with access to climate information services for the agriculture sector was a good example for climate change adaptation.
- Promoting the collective voice: In cooperation with Vietnam’s Women’s Union, a training workshop on gender in NDCs was held for its members at provincial levels and for local NGOs. During the workshop, participants learned about integrating gender into NDCs and shared their experiences. They also had a chance to review the draft NDC1 revision and proposed recommendations for gender inclusion, which were then shared with the NDC task force.
- Developing a policy paper: The gender & climate NDC Task Force, which is led by MONRE includes representatives from line ministries, development partners, and national and international consultants. The Vietnam Women’s Union is a socio-political organization, representing the legal and legitimate rights and interests of Vietnamese women across all levels of society.
Vietnam is considered a pioneer in mainstreaming gender into its NDC. The process of gender mainstreaming into the NDC review and update was documented by cooperating partners and is available to the public at here
The Department of Climate Change (DCC), MONRE’s subordinate agency, has informally agreed that GIZ, UN Women, and CCWG will provide technical support for the development of the national Gender Action Plan (GAP).